Page 6 - CSA Speaker Bulletin March 2018 | CSA Celebrity Speakers
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What Will                      For three decades Anders Fogh              protect civilians in Libya took six
                               Rasmussen has been at the                  days. In the future we may not
Killer                         centre of global and European              even have six minutes. We need to
Robots                         politics, including having been            speed our decision-making process
                               NATO Secretary General. Also               exponentially.
Mean                           as Prime Minister of Denmark,
for World                      Anders held the Presidency                 It is often said that the state which
Order?                         of the European Union and                  cracks this technology will have a
                               negotiated the joining of 10               major tactical advantage in future
Anders Fogh Rasmussen meets    new EU members.                            wars. Of course, the major powers
Sophia the Robot.                                                         are all investing substantially, but in
                               Artificial intelligence (AI) has           an alliance like NATO we also see
                                               the capacity to transform  a growing gap between the ‘haves’
                                               warfare in a manner not    and the ‘have nots’; those states that
                                               seen since the invention   believe the US will be first over the
                               of Blitzkrieg in the late 1930s. Are       finishing line are investing very little
                               we ready? And what will AI, or ‘killer     in defences and new capabilities.
                               robots’ mean for our world order? I        However, this would be a major
                               fear it will make us far less stable.      strategic blunder.
                               In theory, future battles could last just
                               minutes. Swarms of truly autonomous        Across the world, we need to have a
                               armed drones with different types          serious discussion about some of the
                               of on-board AI could descend on            many moral and practical questions
                               a target, joined or preceded by a          that AI is throwing up. In particular,
                               major cyberattack that can debilitate      the role of humans in the command
                               critical infrastructure. This would        chain. Humans can either be ‘in the
                               be combined with a misinformation          loop’, having full control over systems,
                               campaign that spreads confusion            they can be ‘on the loop’, having the
                               among the citizenry. A state could         power to intervene on an automated
                               thus be incapacitated in a matter          system, or they could be ‘out of the
                               of minutes before it even had the          loop’, meaning they tell a system to
                               opportunity to respond.                    ‘attack’ and it takes care of the rest.
                                                                          I believe that a human being should
                               In the nuclear age, no major powers        always be involved in taking a life
                               have gone to war against each              or death decision, so I have begun
                               other because of the mutually              arguing for a global non-proliferation
                               assured destruction that would surely      agreement on fully automated
                               follow if a conflict became nuclear.       weapons systems.
                               However, AI, cyber-attacks and
                               more broadly hybrid warfare blur           AI offers enormous opportunities for
                               the lines in conflict, even making         our future economic, societal and
                               it unclear whether a state is under        diplomatic development. We should
                               attack until after it is over. When        embrace this progress, but policy-
                               NATO decided to defend the civilian        makers need to have a number of
                               population in Kosovo, the Alliance’s       honest discussions now about the
                               internal decision-making took six          right framework for its development,
                               months. However the decision to            so that it disrupts in a positive, rather
                                                                          than deadly, manner.

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